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Building Enclosure Systems in Architecture

Building enclosure systems include below-grade and above-grade portions of a structure that physically separates the interior from the exterior environment. The components of a building enclosure system include the:

Base floor systems
Foundation wall systems
Above-grade wall systems
Doors and windows
Roof systems

Each component provides a multi-material, multi-layer assembly that extends from the interior layer (wallpaper or paint) to the outermost exterior layer (roof shingles, facade). Together, all the adjoining enclosure sub-systems make up the enclosure system in architecture.

Building Enclosure Design Considerations

Optimizing the building enclosure’s performance requires quality building enclosure solutions, like Sto’s integrated building enclosure systems, that consider interior and exterior environments, loadings, physical functions, and performance attributes of the enclosure. These also apply to the other physical components of the building.

Interior and Exterior Loadings

Loading refers to any event or characteristic that affects the enclosure, typically related to:

Gravity
Ground
Heat (thermal)
Moisture
Air

Interior-Environment Loadings

Interior-environmental loadings mainly result from the occupants, natural occurrences, or conditioning. Managing interior-environment loadings involves space conditioning to maintain temperature and humidity levels and fire prevention. Therefore, the success of the building enclosure depends on addressing the interior environment.

Exterior-Environmental Loadings

Exterior environment loadings occur due to climate (weather, hurricanes, flooding), human (smog, global warming), or nature (fire, seismic, pests). Therefore a high-performing building enclosure must provide resistance against water, wind, fire, radon, flood, earthquake, termites, and hydrostatic pressure. The durability and long-term integrity of the building or home depend on a building enclosure with all these protections.

Building Enclosure Functions

Building enclosures provide three physical functions:

Support Functions resist, transfer, and accommodate all the structural forms of loading imposed by the interior and exterior environments, the enclosure, and the building, often acting as an integral part of the building superstructure.
Control Functions regulate and moderate all the loadings due to the separation of the interior and exterior environments – the flow of mass (moisture, air, etc.) and energy (sound, heat, UV, etc.).
Finish Functions of the enclosure surface ⎯ the envelope interfaces with the exterior and interior environments. Each interface must meet the relevant visual, aesthetic, durability, and other performance requirements.

Attributes of a High-Performing Building Enclosure

A high-quality building enclosure must manage every loading to ensure long-term, successful performance and include both physical and qualitative attributes.

Simple and quick construction
Durability and long-term integrity
Superior aesthetics
Sustainability
Safety to occupants
Low-maintenance and repair needs
Financial savings during and after construction

Sto Building Enclosure Wall Systems

Sto’s integrated building enclosure systems effectively deliver a single solution for all the requirements of a high-performing building enclosure wall system, streamlining the process for contractors and installers and saving time and money. In addition, our building enclosure wall systems offer endless choices in styles, textures, and colors for creating aesthetically pleasing facades with eye-catching curb appeal. You can combine several facades in a single system without product compatibility design and transition challenges.

Building Enclosure Systems in Architecture

Sto building enclosure systems include control layers that protect the building from exterior environmental elements and also create a healthy, comfortable interior for the occupants.

  • An air barrier lessens energy use and condensation by limiting unwanted airflow through the wall system.
  • A permeable or impermeable (per designer specification) vapor retarder minimizes condensation by stopping the flow of water vapor as it moves from high to low-pressure areas.
  • A water-resistant barrier flashes to the cladding’s exterior to stop water from infiltrating the wall cavity.
  • A thermal barrier minimizes energy loss and stops thermal bridging.
  • A water-shedding and durable facade protects against weather, UV exposure, pollutants, and more.

Sto products are also dependability fortified by third-party testing and code compliance, including fire testing (NFPA-285). We cover all of our wall systems with a single-source warranty.

1. StoPanel Systems Prefabricated Exterior Wall Panels

Sto’s prefabrication solution, Sto Panel® Technology, provides finished exterior wall panels. The StoPanel® system panels consist of an air barrier, water-resistant barrier, cold-formed metal framing, and applicable components, including continuous insulation (ci), sub-framing, glass mat sheathing, and facade aesthetic.

Prefabrication provides many significant advantages:

  • Helps to stay on budget
  • ݈Lessens delivery time and labor needs
  • Improves quality control and assurance
  • Boosts job site safety
  • Reduces construction waste

StoPanel® Classic NExT ci

StoPanel® Classic NExT ci prefabricated wall panel is comprised of gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and StoTherm® ci façade

StoPanel® MVES

StoPanel® MVES prefabricated wall panel includes gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and Sto’s Masonry Veneer Engineered System (MVES) facade with Adhered Masonry Veneer (AMV) – natural stone, ceramic tile, cultured stone, or thin brick.

StoPanel® Mineral ci

StoPanel® Mineral ci prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and StoTherm® Mineral ci façade.

StoPanel® Dri-Design®

StoPanel® Dri-Design® prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and Dri-Design® metal façade.

StoPanel® Swisspearl®

StoPanel® Swisspearl® prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and Swisspearl fiber cement façade.

StoPanel® Impact ci

StoPanel® Impact ci prefabricated wall panels comprise steel framing, gypsum sheathing, and StoTherm ci system, designed specifically for small and large missile impact performance.

StoPanel® 3DP Powered by Branch Technology

Sto Panel Technology® and Branch Technology work together to create a superior 3-dimensional design for exterior walls. Prefabricated, panelized walls combine the building enclosure layers into a customizable 3D printed lightweight, strong, and simple-to-install composite shape. In addition, the Branch’s unique Cellular Fabrication (C-Fab®) 3D printing process permits you to produce a unique and highly functional architectural façade panel in endless forms or shapes.

StoPanel® Brick

StoPanel® Brick prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, thin masonry veneers, or thin brick.

StoPanel® XPS

StoPanel® XPS prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and StoTherm® ci façade that includes Extruded Polystyrene Foam Insulation.

StoPanel® Metal

StoPanel® Metal prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and metal cladding.

StoPanel® Backup

StoPanel® Backup prefabricated wall panels include an air barrier, steel framing, gypsum sheathing, and water-resistant barrier. Builders apply the facade on-site.

StoPanel® Precast

StoPanel® Precast prefabricated wall panel includes gypsum sheathing, steel framing, gypsum sheathing, and various integral decorative and protective finish options to replicate precast concrete.

2. StoVentec® Rainscreen® Systems

Rainscreen claddings protect against moisture damage (especially essential with water-absorbing claddings) by providing a ventilation gap between the siding and air and water-resistant barrier. The small gap (as tiny as ½-inch) permits adequate drainage and drying.

StoVentec® Systems provide a complete, code-approved, fully-tested, high-performance ventilated Rainscreen® system comprised of air and water-resistant barrier, non-combustible mineral wool insulation, an easy-to-install, adjustable sub-framing assembly, and our impressive StoVentec® Rainscreen® cladding.

In the U.S., StoVentec® back-ventilated rainscreen cladding systems offer numerous finishes, providing architects with many aesthetic choices to create distinctive building facades with exceptional engineered performance features.

StoVentec® Masonry Veneer Facades

StoVentec® for masonry veneer facades offer a back-ventilated rainscreen wall system with aesthetic options of tile, thin brick, and masonry.

StoVentec® Glass

StoVentec® Glass provides an open joint, drained, and back-ventilated rainscreen wall system with an opaque glass façade, offering aesthetic choices of back-colored glass, frosted glass, and custom printed glass.

StoVentec® Render

StoVentec® Render drained and back-ventilated rainscreen wall system offers aesthetic opinions of Stolit Lotusan self-cleaning textured finish, Sto textured finish, and StoCast, Sto’s prefabricated resin cast shapes.

3. StoPowerwall® Stucco Systems

StoPowerwall® Stucco Systems combine aesthetic and protective elements into a superior wall system, including StoGuard® fluid-applied air and water-resistant barrier, StoPowerwall® Stucco, and Sto textured coatings and finishes that keep out moisture while furnishing many choices in design. In addition, Sto systems include the Sto DrainScreen drainage mat for additional moisture protection and optional Sto Crack Defense, a fortification layer for crack prevention.

StoPowerwall® DrainScreen MVES

The StoPowerwall® DrainScreen MVES stucco wall assembly with masonry, thin brick, tile, or cultured stone veneer, includes the moisture protection of StoGuard® air and water-resistant barrier and Sto DrainScreen to minimize the risk of water accumulation.

StoPowerwall® DrainScreen

The StoPowerwall® DrainScreen Stucco wall system combines the strength and durability of traditional stucco with StoGuard moisture protection, Sto high-performance finishes, and Sto DrainScreen; however, it does not include insulation.

StoPowerwall® ExtraSeal®

The StoPowerwall® ExtraSeal® stucco wall system applies directly to concrete masonry units, with Sto ExtraSeal moisture and air protection.

StoPowerwall® HI Wall Panel System

The StoPowerwall® HI stucco wall system includes continuous air and moisture barrier and drainage. It combines the durability and strength of traditional stucco with StoGuard moisture protection and Sto Armor Mat XX Mesh for additional impact resistance and reinforcement. It also meets the testing requirements for large and small missile impacts.

4. StoQuik® Silver Systems Cement Board Stucco

StoQuik® Silver Systems combines the moisture protection of StoGuard air and water-resistant barrier with the strength of a cement board substrate, a drainage mat for draining and drying, and the versatile performance and design choices of Sto’s textured finishes – reducing the moisture exposure, complex installation, and labor steps of traditional stucco.

StoQuik® Silver DrainScreen™MVES

The weather-resistant, high-impact StoQuik® Silver DrainScreen™ MVES cement board stucco system offers excellent moisture protection with natural stone, ceramic tile, manufactured stone, or thin brick stone veneer for exterior vertical above-grade walls in low-rise commercial, institutional, and residential construction.

StoQuik® Silver DrainScreen™

Durable, StoQuik® Silver DrainScreen™ cement board stucco system provides improved water drainage and superior energy efficiency.

5. Drainable EIFS (Exterior Insulation Finishing System) – StoTherm® ci Wall Systems

StoTherm® ci cladding systems integrate continuous insulation, air and water-resistant barriers, drainage, and many aesthetic finish options to create a high-performance, sustainable building enclosure system. The durable and eye-catching system maintains maximum curb appeal and saves money through reduced energy bills.

StoTherm® ci MVES

StoTherm® ci MVES (masonry veneer engineered system) integrate continuous insulation, air and water-resistant barrier, drainage and Sto’s high strength masonry veneer adhesive.. It can be used with thin brick, natural stone, ceramic tile, or manufactured stone that is in conformance with applicable building code requirements.

StoTherm® ci Mineral

The StoTherm® ci Mineral system incorporates non-combustible, mineral wool insulation and continuous air and water-resistant barrier with Sto’s high-quality finishes to produce an advanced high-performance building enclosure wall system.

StoTherm® ci XPS

High-performance, durable StoTherm® ci XPSincorporates high R-value extruded polystyrene insulation into the wall assembly and StoGuard® fluid-applied air and water-resistant barrier, to create a watertight air wall ensuring superior durability and thermal efficiency.

StoTherm® ci

StoTherm® ci combines StoTherm® and the StoGuard® waterproof air barrier systems for improved energy efficiency and protection against moisture infiltration.

StoTherm® ci HI-LM CMU 180

Hurricane-resistant, high-performing, and energy-efficient StoTherm® ci HI-LM CMU 180 provides a continuous insulation wall system that integrates StoGuard® waterproof air barrier and StoTherm® insulated cladding and drainage abilities over concrete masonry unit substrates. In addition, the StoTherm® ci HI-LM CMU 180’s engineering meets the strict Miami-Dade County, Florida NOA criteria for small and large missile impact resistance, wind load resistance, and air and water infiltration.

StoTherm® ci 1177-LM

High-performance StoTherm® ci 1177-LM exterior wall cladding system integrates a seamless air and water-resistant barrier with continuous insulation, advanced drainage abilities, and Sto® Armor Mat XX Mesh for added reinforcement and impact resistance compared to glass mat gypsum sheathing. The engineering of StoTherm® ci 1177-LM meets the strict Miami-Dade County, Florida NOA testing standards for small and large and missile impact resistance and performance on 16-gauge steel studs with gypsum sheathing.

StoTherm® ci 1177-SM

High-performance StoTherm® ci 1177-SM exterior wall cladding assembly integrates a seamless air and water-resistant barrier with continuous insulation and advanced drainage abilities compared to glass mat gypsum sheathing. In addition, the engineering of StoTherm® ci 1177-SM meets the strict Miami-Dade County, Florida NOA standards for small missile impact resistance, wind load resistance, and air and water infiltration.

StoTherm® ci HI-PLY

High-performance StoTherm® ci HI-PLY exterior wall cladding assembly combines a seamless air and water-resistant barrier with continuous insulation and advanced drainage abilities over CDX exterior plywood sheathing. In addition, the engineering of StoTherm® ci HI-PLY meets the strict Miami-Dade County, Florida NOA testing standards for large and small missile impact resistance, wind load resistance, and air and water infiltration.

6. Sto Masonry Veneer Engineered Systems

Sto Masonry Veneer Engineered Systems (MVES) offer various choices for integrating popular masonry veneer surfaces into any architectural layout. These thoroughly engineered, high-performance, and lightweight systems give you the endless design flexibility to showcase the aesthetic of brick, tile, brick, or a combination with Sto’s expansive range of architectural surfaces.

StoTherm® ci MVES

Lightweight, energy-efficient system StoTherm® ci MVES offers an engineered insulating wall system with Adhered Masonry Veneer (AMV) – natural stone, thin brick, stone, ceramic tile, or cultured stone. It combines superior weather and air tightness with outstanding thermal performance and durability.

StoPowerwall® DrainScreen MVES

StoPowerwall DrainScreen MVES comprises a Portland cement stucco wall system with Adhered Masonry Veneer (AMV) – natural stone, thin brick, ceramic tile, or cultured stone. It combines the durability and strength of portland cement stucco with Sto’s enhanced strength masonry veneer adhesive and the moisture protection of Sto’s innovated cavity wall design with StoGuard® air and water-resistant barriers.

StoQuik® Silver DrainScreen™ MVES

High-impact, weather-resistant StoQuik® Silver DrainScreen™ cement board stucco system provides superior moisture protection for exterior vertical above-grade walls in low-rise commercial, institutional, and residential construction. It also achieves the beautiful aesthetic of masonry veneers like ceramic tiles, thin bricks, natural stone, manufactured stone, and culture stones. It combines the high strength of cement board substrate with StoGuard® air and water-resistant barrier and features Sto DrainScreen technology to promote excellent drainage and drying of the wall system. It also includes StoColl masonry veneer adhesive, a high-performance polymer modified Portland cement thin-set adhesive to create an advanced engineered building enclosure system.

StoVentec® for masonry veneer facades

Drained and back ventilated StoVentec® for masonry veneer facades offers a fully engineered Rainscreen® wall system with a thin brick facade. The complete system includes continuous insulation, sub-construction, and continuous air and water-resistant barrier. Combining the internationally proven performance of the StoVentec® rainscreen system with the durability of thin brick masonry veneer offers building enclosure designers both the flexibility of form and function when combined with Sto’s other engineered wall systems.

StoPanel MVES

StoPanel® MVES prefabricated wall panels include gypsum sheathing, steel framing, and Adhered Masonry Veneer (AMV) – thin brick, ceramic tile, and natural or cultured stone. The complete wall system combines outstanding air and weather tightness with superior thermal performance and durability with Sto high-strength masonry veneer adhesive.

7. Specialty Building Enclosure Systems

Our building enclosure systems include a series of special wall assemblies engineered to meet particular building enclosure design requirements and accommodate different building substrates like Aerated Autoclave Concrete or Insulated Concrete Forms.

StoQuik® Gold System for Soffits and Ceilings

Sto provides a direct-applied Exterior Finish System (DEFS) for weather-protecting walls and un-insulated exterior soffit and ceiling applications.

Sto Interior Finish System for Pool Rooms

Sto offers a specialized decorative and protective finished system for interior walls and ceilings of residential or commercial indoor swimming pool rooms.

Sto ICF Coating System

A Sto decorative and protective finish system for Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) construction

Sto ICF Stucco System

Sto provides a decorative and protective stucco finish system for Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) construction.

Sto AAC Finish System

Sto offers a decorative and protective finish system for above-grade exterior AAC wall construction.

Sto ICF Insulated Finish System

Sto provides a decorative and protective finish system for Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) construction.

Why Choose Sto’s High-Performance Building Enclosure Systems?

Why Choose Sto’s High-Performance Building Enclosure Systems?

Sto’s building enclosure systems include all the control layers required for a high-performance system. Easy to install, time-saving Sto systems combine all the wall components in a single unit:

  • Continuous insulation
  • Sub-framing system
  • Air barriers
  • Water-resistant barriers
  • Endless aesthetic façade surface options accommodating all your designs

For more on high-performance building enclosure systems, don’t hesitate to contact our knowledgeable Sto professionals today.

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